Karl Marx was a philosopher and social theorist, he is famous for his theories about capitalism and communism.
Communism is a kind of economic system. Individuals do not own land, industries, or machinery in a Communist system. Instead, the government or the entire community owns those items. Everyone must share the wealth they generate.
Many countries adopted the capitalist economic system by the 1800s. Individuals who call themselves capitalists possess property and operate enterprises under capitalism. Some entrepreneurs became wealthy by paying very little to their employees. As a result, many workers began to accept socialist views. In a socialist society, the government owns businesses and distributes money more equitably among citizens.
Karl Marx advanced socialist ideals even further. Marx's theories served as the foundation for Communism. The workers were referred to as the proletariat by Marx. Marx believed that the workers will one day lead a revolution and defeat the capitalists. After seizing power, they would become the new ruling class. To start with, there would be a "proletarian dictatorship" to crush any opposition. Then, and only then, would a truly communist society evolve. This would imply shared property ownership and the absence of government. People would work to generate riches in accordance with their talents. Everyone would share their wealth in accordance with their needs.
The 1917 Russian Revolution resulted in the establishment of the first Communist government. A political party led by Vladimir Lenin was formed to put Marx's theories into action. This party established a new country known as the Soviet Union, which was later renamed the Communist Party. Following the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union supported several nations in Eastern Europe to form Communist regimes. The United States and its many allies opposed the spread of Communism. The two sides established a rivalry known as the Cold War. Communists took power of China in 1949. Following a revolution in 1959, they seized control of Cuba. Vietnam was also taken over by communists in 1975.
But by the late 20th-century communism lost supporters. Between 1989 and 1991, the Communist governments of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe fell apart. China's Communist government has prevailed into the twenty-first century. However, China has also taken moves toward a capitalist society.